10 Min read

What You Need to Know About Physical Therapy Billing

Suppose you're running a physical therapy practice. In that case, you already know it's about much more than just helping your patients regain their mobility and health. It's also about ensuring the financial health of your practice so you can continue providing top-notch care. That's where physical therapy billing comes into play. Now, I get it; billing might not be the most exciting topic in physical therapy, but it's undoubtedly one of the most crucial aspects of managing your practice. This conversation will explain everything you need about physical therapy billing. We'll explore the basics, common challenges, best practices, and choosing between in-house billing and outsourcing. Let's dive in.

physical therapy billing
The Basics of Physical Therapy Billing
Understanding CPT Codes

Billing for physical therapy services typically involves using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. These codes are standardized medical codes used to describe various healthcare services and procedures. For physical therapists, standard CPT codes include evaluation and re-evaluation, therapeutic exercises, manual therapy techniques, and modalities.


Accurate and detailed documentation is the foundation of successful billing in physical therapy. Thorough documentation should include:

  • Patient Information: Ensure you have complete and up-to-date patient information, including insurance details.
  • Treatment Plans: Document the treatment plan, including the goals, frequency, and duration of therapy.
  • Progress Notes: Regularly record your observations and the patient's progress during each session. Note any changes in the patient's condition and the treatment provided.
  • CPT Codes: Assign the appropriate CPT codes to each service or procedure performed during the session.
  • Patient Education: Document any education provided to the patient, including exercises to be done at home.

Verification of Insurance Benefits

Before providing services, verifying the patient's insurance benefits is crucial. This includes checking the patient's coverage for physical therapy, any copayments or deductibles they may have, and whether pre-authorization is required for specific treatments.

Claim Submission

Once you have documented the services, you must submit claims to the patient's insurance company. Claims should include the patient's information, the CPT codes, diagnosis codes, and supporting documentation. Timely claim submission is essential to ensure you receive payment promptly.

Payment Posting and Reconciliation

As payments are received, they should be accurately posted to the patient's account. It's common for insurance companies to send Explanation of Benefits (EOB) statements that outline the payment details. Reconcile these statements with your records to ensure you receive the correct payment.

Denial Management

Denials are a common challenge in medical billing, and physical therapy is no exception. When a claim is denied, it's crucial to identify its reason, make necessary corrections, and resubmit promptly. Effective denial management can significantly impact your practice's revenue.

Common Challenges
  1. Insurance Verification Issues: One of the initial challenges in physical therapy billing is verifying a patient's insurance benefits accurately. Inaccurate or incomplete verification can lead to claim denials and payment delays. To address this challenge, you must train your front desk staff to thoroughly verify insurance benefits before the patient's first visit. Insurance details should be confirmed at each appointment, especially if the patient's coverage changes.
  2. Documentation Errors: Accurate and comprehensive documentation is the bedrock of successful billing. Insufficient or inaccurate documentation can result in claim denials or audits, causing disruptions in cash flow. To mitigate this challenge, it's crucial to implement thorough documentation practices. Provide your clinical staff with training and templates for progress notes to ensure consistency and completeness in patient records.
  3. Claim Denials: Claim denials are a pervasive challenge in medical billing, including physical therapy. These denials may occur due to coding errors, missing information, lack of pre-authorization, or other issues. An effective denial management process is essential to overcome this challenge. When a claim is denied, it should be promptly investigated to identify the cause, corrected, and resubmitted.
  4. Delayed Payments: Delays receiving payments from insurance companies can strain your practice's cash flow. These delays can occur due to processing inefficiencies on the insurer's side or delayed claim submissions. To address this challenge, monitor payment timelines closely and follow up on overdue payments promptly. Consider implementing electronic billing and payment solutions to expedite processing.
  5. Coding and Billing Changes: Healthcare billing regulations and codes are subject to frequent changes. Staying updated with these changes can be challenging and lead to confusion and errors. Invest in ongoing education and training for your billing and clinical staff to tackle this challenge. You may also benefit from using electronic medical records (EMR) or billing software that automatically updates codes and regulations to ensure compliance.
  6. Patient Communication: Effectively communicating with patients about their financial responsibilities can be challenging. Patients may be confused about their insurance coverage, copayments, or out-of-pocket costs. To address this challenge, prioritize clear and transparent communication with your patients. Explain the billing process, including any costs they might incur, and assist in understanding their insurance benefits.
  7. Credentialing and Contracting: Credentialing with insurance providers and maintaining contracts can be cumbersome. This challenge often involves extensive paperwork and can lead to delays in reimbursement. To mitigate this challenge, establish efficient processes for credentialing and contract management. Consider seeking assistance from experts in healthcare credentialing if necessary.
  8. Staff Training and Turnover: Staff turnover and the need for continuous training can disrupt billing processes. New employees may lack experience with your practice's billing procedures when they join. To tackle this challenge, invest in ongoing training programs for your billing staff and maintain clear documentation of your billing processes. Cross-training teams can also help ensure continuity in billing operations.
  9. Billing Software and Technology: Depending on your choice of billing software and technology, you may encounter challenges related to system integration, upgrades, and user proficiency. To address this challenge, regularly update and maintain your billing software, ensure compatibility with other systems, and provide staff training to maximize its efficiency.
Outsourcing Vs In House Billing 

The choice between outsourcing billing to third-party experts and keeping it in-house can profoundly impact a practice's financial health and operational efficiency. Each approach comes with its own set of advantages and challenges, making the decision a complex one. In exploring the differences between outsourcing and in-house billing in the context of physical therapy, we will delve into the intricacies of each option, shedding light on the factors that can help you make an informed choice.

Aspect In-House Billing Outsourcing Billing
Control Greater control over billing processes, customizable to your practice's needs. Less direct control, relies on the expertise of the outsourcing company.
Expertise Requires in-house staff to stay updated with billing regulations and codes. Outsourcing companies specialize in healthcare billing, with experienced billers.
Cost Higher initial costs (staff salaries, software, infrastructure). Often more cost-effective upfront, with ongoing outsourcing fees.
Scalability May require hiring more staff and investing in resources as your practice grows. Billing companies can scale their services to meet your practice's needs.
Errors More prone to errors, which can lead to claim denials and revenue loss. Billing companies focus on accuracy, reducing the likelihood of errors.
Focus on Patient Care Billing tasks may divert clinical staff's attention from patient care. Frees up clinical staff to focus solely on patient care.
Communication Direct communication with billing staff is possible, facilitating issue resolution. Effective communication with the outsourcing partner is crucial.
Privacy Concerns Direct control over patient data and privacy but requires stringent security measures. Billing companies must adhere to strict data security and privacy standards.
Technology Infrastructure Responsibility for maintaining and upgrading billing software and hardware. Relies on the billing company's advanced technology.

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Revenue Cycle Management

Revenue Cycle Management (RCM) is a critical process in physical therapy, encompassing all administrative and clinical functions that contribute to capturing, managing, and collecting patient service revenue. Here are the essential steps of revenue cycle management specific to physical therapy:

Patient Registration:

  • The RCM process begins with patient registration. Accurate and complete demographic and insurance information must be collected during the patient's initial visit.
  • Verify the patient's insurance coverage, including eligibility, benefits, co-pays, and deductibles. Any pre-authorization requirements should also be identified at this stage.

Appointment Scheduling and Confirmation:

  • Efficient scheduling ensures that patients are seen promptly and that their appointments align with their insurance coverage.
  • Send appointment reminders and confirmations to reduce no-shows and late cancellations.

Point of Service (POS) Collections:

  • Collect any co-pays, deductibles, or out-of-pocket expenses at the time of service. Inform patients about their financial responsibilities and payment options.

Accurate Documentation:

  • Clinical staff should maintain detailed and accurate documentation of patient visits. This includes recording assessment findings, treatment plans, goals, progress notes, and any patient condition changes.

Proper Coding:

  • Assign appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes for the services provided during the session.
  • Ensure that codes accurately reflect the treatment provided and support medical necessity.

Claim Submission:

  • Compile all necessary documentation, including patient records and coded services, to create clean claims.
  • Submit claims electronically whenever possible for faster processing.
  • Keep a record of claim submission dates and track claim status.

Claim Adjudication:

  • Insurance companies review and process claims. This may include verification of the patient's coverage, adherence to contract terms, and compliance with coding and billing guidelines.
  • Monitor claim status and follow up on any delays or denials.

Payment Posting and Reconciliation:

  • Once payments are received from insurance companies, post them accurately to the patient's account.
  • Reconcile payments with Explanation of Benefits (EOB) statements to ensure proper accounting.

Denial Management:

  • If a claim is denied, investigate the reason for the denial. Common causes include coding errors, lack of pre-authorization, and incomplete documentation.
  • Correct any errors and resubmit the claim promptly. Establish a structured denial management process to minimize revenue loss.

Appeals Process:

  • In cases where denials are unjustified, initiate the appeals process with the insurance company. Provide any additional documentation or information required for reconsideration.

Patient Billing and Statements:

  • Send clear and detailed patient billing statements for any remaining balances after insurance payments. Include information about services rendered, insurance adjustments, and payment options.
  • Provide a clear point of contact for billing inquiries.

Payment Collections:

  • Implement a systematic process for collecting patient balances through payment plans, credit card transactions, or other means.
  • Send reminders and follow up on overdue payments.

Aging Reports and Analysis:

  • Regularly review aging reports to identify outstanding claims or patient balances. Address aged accounts promptly to prevent revenue loss.
  • Analyze RCM data to identify trends, such as common denials or payment delays, and implement process improvements.

Financial Reporting and Analysis:

  • Generate financial reports that provide insights into the practice's revenue, reimbursement rates, and overall financial performance.
  • Use these reports to make informed decisions about the practice's financial strategies and goals.

Continuous Improvement:

  • Revenue cycle management is an ongoing process. Continuously evaluate and improve your RCM workflows, staff training, and technology tools to optimize revenue capture and minimize inefficiencies.

Effective revenue cycle management in physical therapy is essential for maintaining a healthy practice. It ensures accurate and timely reimbursement for your services while delivering transparent and efficient financial interactions with your patients. Remember, effective billing isn't just about dollars and cents; it's about ensuring your patients receive the care they need without unnecessary financial burdens. It's about running a practice that thrives and continues to positively impact people's lives.

And let's remember the choice between in-house billing and outsourcing. It's a decision that can significantly impact your practice. Now, you have the information to make an informed choice that aligns with your unique circumstances. Thanks for joining this conversation, and here's to your physical therapy practice's success, both in health and wealth!

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